Scientific Explanations About the Mysteries of Borobudur Development

Scientific Explanations About the Mysteries of Borobudur Development

Borobudur is the largest temple relics on Century-9. This temple looks very impressive and strong, so famous throughout the world. Valuable historical heritage of this could be one of the seven wonders of the world.

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But did you know that just as in other ancient buildings, Borobudur did not escape the mystery about how to make it? This mystery is a lot of speculative opinions that gave birth to controversy. With a few notes and references are limited, let’s try to analyze and uncover the veil of mystery making less this temple which turned out not to be a mystery!

Temple Design
Borobudur has the basic structure punden terraces, with a six-yard square, three round circular courtyard and a main stupa as a peak. Also scattered  several stupas.

Borobudur temple established in the top of a hill or a row of small hills that extends to the west-southwest and east-southeast with ± 123 m in length, width and height of ± 123 m ± 34.5 m measured from the surrounding flat land surface with a peak flat hill.

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Borobudur Temple also looks quite complex views of the parts that were built. Consisting of 10 levels where the rate of 1-6 square-shaped and the rest of the round. The wall reliefs of the temple filled with the image as much as 1460 bar. There are 504 statues that complement the temple.

Drafting Materials Temple
Soil core that serves as a land base or foundation soil Borobudur Temple is divided into 2, namely soil and natural soil-forming urug hill. Urug land is land that are made available for development purposes Borobudur, adapted to the shape of the building of the temple.

Land urug added above the original soil as filler and shaper morphology temple building. Urug land has been created by the founder of the Borobudur Temple, not a result of restoration work. Urug soil thickness is not uniform even though located on the same floor, which is between 0.5 to 8.5 m.

Potongan candi borobudur 2 Scientific Explanations About the Mysteries of Borobudur Development

Rock composer Borobudur type andesite with a high porosity, about 32% porinya levels -46%, and between pore holes with each other are unrelated. Strong low compressive strength when compared with similar rocks.

From the research Sampurno (1969), obtained a minimum compressive strength of 111 kg/cm2 and the maximum compressive strength of 281 kg/cm2. Heavy volume of rock between 1.6 to 2 t/m3.

Mystery of How to Build Temple
Data on this temple in terms of design, history and philosophy of building so many available. Many historians and ancient buildings to write about the features of this temple.

Data search results in both the book and the Internet, none of which reveal little about the mystery of how the construction of the temple. The only information is written on the figure of Edward Leedskalnin a strange and mysterious.

He said “I have discovered the secrets of the pyramids and how the ancient Egyptians, Peru, Yucatan and Asia (Borobudur temple) lift stones weighing many tons only with primitive equipment.”

Edward is the man who built Coral Castle fame. Some people then expect him how to work to unravel the mystery about her knowledge of how the ancient buildings were built.

Here’s the opinion of some people and experts on how to build it:

coral castle Scientific Explanations About the Mysteries of Borobudur Development
Some say that he might have discovered the secret of the ancient architects who build monuments like the pyramids and Stonehenge.

Some say maybe Edwards used some kind of anti-gravity equipment to build Coral Castle.

David Hatcher Childress, author of Anty Gravity and The World Grid, has an interesting theory. According to the South Florida area that became the location of Coral Castle has a strong diamagnetik that could make a floating object. Moreover, the south Florida area still considered part of the Bermuda triangle.

David believes that Edward Leedskalnin using nets diamagnetik principles which enable him earth held up a large stone by using the center of mass. David also refers to the book notes Edward found that indeed show the existence of schemes of magnetic and electrical experiments in it. Although the statement of David smelly science, but the esoteric principles are still clearly visible in it.

Another writer named Ray Stoner also supports this theory. He even believes that Edward moved to Coral Castle Homestead because he is aware of the mathematical calculation errors in determining the location of Coral Castle. So he moved to the area you have the advantage in terms of magnetic strength.

Finally managed to get photos taken at the time of Edward’s work on Coral Castle showed that he used the same approach used by modern workers, that is using the principle called the block and tackle.

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Coral Castle Bede also vary Borobudur Temple. Coral Castle still would allow using the Block and Tackle. For taste Borobudur block and tackle is still not there.

So how exactly how to make this temple? The mystery is not revealed on the basis of the above information. Let’s think again regardless of mystery by trying to analyze existing data.

Aspects to consider before estimating how the temple was built

1. Building form
The temple is square-shaped tread ± 123 m in length, width and height of ± 123 m ± 42 m. Area 15 129 m2.

2. The volume of primary material
The main material of this temple is high berporositas andesites gravity of 1.6 to 2.0 t/m3. An estimated 55,000 m3 of stone formers temple or about 2 million, ranging from rock to rock size 25 x 10 x 15 cm. Weight per piece of stone about 7.5 – 10 kg.

3. Construction of buildings
Borobudur Temple is a pile of stones placed on the mound as the core, so not a massive pile of rocks. Soil core was also deliberately made with staircase-steps and the top trim to put the rock temple.

4. Each stone connected without the use of cement or adhesive
These stones are only connected by patterns and stacked.

5. All the stones are taken from the river in the vicinity of Borobudur temple.

6. Borobudur Temple is a building complex
Consisting of 10 levels where the rate of 1-6 square-shaped and the rest of the round. The wall reliefs of the temple filled with the image as much as 1460 bar. There are 505 statues that complement the temple.

7. Technology available
At that time there has been no material removal technology heavy lift and adequate. Estimated using a simple mechanical method.

8. Estimated period of implementation
No information is accurate. But some sources say that Borobudur temple was built from 824 AD – 847 AD There are other references which mention that the temple was built from 750 M to 842 M or 92 years.

9. Construction of the temple is gradually
Initially built-storey apartment layout. It seems designed as a pyramid with staircase. But then changed. As there is evidence of a dismantled apartment layout.

The second phase, the foundation borobudur widened, plus two square steps and one step directly circle given a huge main stupa.

The third stage, steps on the circle with a large main stupa dismantled and removed and replaced by three railroad circles. Stupas are built on top of these steps with a large stupa in the middle.

The fourth stage, there are small changes, namely the manufacture of relief and making changes to the ladder above the door arch.

One thing that is unique, that this temple was architecturally interesting or structured format in mathematics. Each of any part of legs, body and head of the temple always has a ratio of 4:6:9.

Placement-placement stupanya also has significance, not to mention the existence of the relief that is expected berkatian with astronomy makes Borobudur is an interesting historical evidence to be observed.

The number of stupas at the Arupadhatu (stupa at the top do not count) are: 32, 24, 26 which has a comparative basis, ie 4:3:2, and everything is divisible by 8.

Height of the stupa at the three levels are 1.9 m, 1.8 m, each distinct 10 cm. So is the diameter of these stupas, has the exact same size with a height 1.9 m, 1.8 m, 1.7 m.

Some numbers in Borobudur, when added up the numbers will end up being number 1 again. Suspected that it was made so that could be interpreted: Figure 1 represents the esaan the adhi buddha.

Total levels of Borobudur was 10, the numbers in 10 when added together the result: 1 + 0 = 1. The number of stupas in which there is Arupadhatu statues there: 32 + 24 + 16 + 1 = 73, number 73 when added together the result: 10 and as above 1 + 0 = 10.

The number of the statues at Borobudur total of 505 pieces. When the numbers in it summed, the result is 5 + 0 + 5 = 10 as well as above 1 + 0 = 1.

Looking at the data above, would still be expected, then let’s try to give some analysis that hopefully can be commented on as we attempt to uncover the mystery that is as follows:

1. From the data mentioned that the size of the stone temple is about 25 x 10 x 15 cm with a density of rocks is 1.6 to 2 ton/m3, this means the weight per piece of stone is only about a maximum of 7.5 kg (for severe type 2 t/m3 .)

Pieces of stone was very mild. For that hard rock, it does not need any technology. Problems that may arise is sloping terrain that must be adopted.

Sloping field in physics to make the burden seems to be more severe. This is because the decomposition of the force causing no horizontal load parallel to the slope that must be borne.

But by looking at the fact that the weight per piece of stone is only 7.5 kg, it’s a problem that beundak sloping terrain the steps do not matter. The conclusion was that the process of transporting a piece of stone can be done easily and does not need any technology.

2. Source material taken from the river stones around the temple. This means that the distance between the quarry and the site is very close. Although the number reached 2 million pieces, but the lightness of each piece of stone material and proximity of transport, this means the transport process can be done easily without the need for a particular technology.

3. The temple was built in the time period long enough. Some say 23 years some are saying 92 years. If the assumption of the fastest 23 years. Let us count the installation of stone about productivity.

If the land preparation and early material is 2 years, then the installation of a stone is 21 years or 7665 days. There are 2 million pieces of stone. Productivity stone installation is 2 million / 7665 = 261 stones per day.

Productivity is likely very small. No need any way to produce small productivity. Moreover, using the data implementation of a longer duration.

4. The duration of the process of making the temple can be due to any design changes made during implementation. This may due to the turn of the ruler (king) during the development process of the temple.

5. Borobudur seen physically very impressive. Has 10 floors with square and circular shapes. Having reliefs and statues along the walls in large numbers. This temple is so concerned philosophy contained in the size-size. This proves that the temple was built with a concept design that was pretty good.

borobudur bas relief Scientific Explanations About the Mysteries of Borobudur Development
6. Borobudur Temple is the largest temple. Borobudur temple complex is also seen visits from architectural design consists of 10 levels where the rate of 1-6 square-shaped and the rest of the round. The wall reliefs of the temple filled with the image as much as 1460 bar. There are 504 statues that complement the temple.

This is clearly not the work of the easy design and implementation. Borobudur temple conclusion of value in terms of both civil engineering design and art of architecture requires careful planning and management of aspects of design and how its implementation. Can be concluded that the temple was built with project management is good enough.

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From the above conclusions can we draw a general conclusion that the Borobudur temple is different from other ancient buildings filled with mystery and mysticism. This temple is more to be explained by simple physics concepts. How to build this temple is not something that is considered much less mystical mystery.

This temple is more valuable and famous rather than the mysteries of the scattered, but this temple has a value of architecture and civil engineering design and project management capabilities are high which shows the progress of our nation thought of its predecessors.

Beda Coral Castle beda pula Candi Borobudur. Coral Castle masih menungkinkan menggunakan Block dan Tackle. Untuk Candi Borobudur rasanya block dan tackle pun masih belum ada.

Lalu bagaimana sebenarnya cara membuat Candi ini? Misteri yang belum terungkap berdasarkan informasi di atas. Mari berfikir ulang terlepas dari misteri dengan mencoba menganalisis data-data yang ada.

Aspek yang perlu diperhatikan sebelum memperkirakan bagaimana candi ini dibangun

1. Bentuk bangunan
Candi ini berbentuk tapak persegi ukuran panjang ± 123 m, lebar ± 123 m dan tinggi ± 42 m. Luas 15.129 m2.

2. Volume material utama
Material utama candi ini adalah batuan andesit berporositas tinggi dengan berat jenis 1,6-2,0 t/m3. Diperkirakan terdapat 55.000 m3 batu pembentuk candi atau sekitar 2 juta batuan dengan ukuran batuan berkisar 25 x 10 x 15 cm. Berat per potongan batu sekitar 7,5 – 10 kg.

3. Konstruksi bangunan
Candi borobudur merupakan tumpukan batu yang diletakkan di atas gundukan tanah sebagai intinya, sehingga bukan merupakan tumpukan batuan yang masif. Inti tanah juga sengaja dibuat berundak-undak dan bagian atasnya diratakan untuk meletakkan batuan candi.

4. Setiap batu disambung tanpa menggunakan semen atau perekat
Batu-batu ini hanya disambung berdasarkan pola dan ditumpuk.

5. Semua batu tersebut diambil dari sungai di sekitar candi borobudur.

6. Candi borobudur merupakan bangunan yang kompleks
Terdiri dari 10 tingkat dimana tingkat 1-6 berbentuk persegi dan sisanya bundar. Dinding candi dipenuhi oleh gambar relief sebanyak 1460 panel. Terdapat 505 arca yang melengkapi candi.

7. Teknologi yang tersedia
Pada saat itu belum ada teknologi angkat dan pemindahan material berat yang memadai. Diperkirakan menggunakan metode mekanik sederhana.

8. Perkiraan jangka waktu pelaksanaan
Tidak ada informasi yang akurat. Namun beberapa sumber menyebutkan bahwa candi borobudur dibangun mulai 824 M – 847 M. Ada referensi lain yang menyebut bahwa candi dibangun dari 750 M hingga 842 M atau 92 tahun.

9. Pembangunan candi dilakukan bertahap
Pada awalnya dibangun tata susun bertingkat. Sepertinya dirancang sebagai piramida berundak. Tetapi kemudian diubah. Sebagai bukti ada tata susun yang dibongkar.

Tahap kedua, pondasi borobudur diperlebar, ditambah dengan dua undak persegi dan satu undak lingkaran yang langsung diberikan stupa induk besar.

Tahap ketiga, undak atas lingkaran dengan stupa induk besar dibongkar dan dihilangkan dan diganti tiga undak lingkaran. Stupa-stupa dibangun pada puncak undak-undak ini dengan satu stupa besar di tengahnya.

Tahap keempat, ada perubahan kecil, yakni pembuatan relief perubahan pada tangga dan pembuatan lengkung di atas pintu.

Suatu hal yang unik, bahwa candi ini ternyata memiliki arsitektur dengan format menarik atau terstruktur secara matematika. Setiap bagain kaki, badan dan kepala candi selalu memiliki perbandingan 4:6:9.

Penempatan-penempatan stupanya juga memiliki makna tersendiri, ditambah lagi adanya bagian relief yang diperkirakan berkatian dengan astronomi menjadikan borobudur memang merupakan bukti sejarah yang menarik untuk diamati.

Jumlah stupa di tingkat arupadhatu (stupa puncak tidak di hitung) adalah: 32, 24, 26 yang memiliki perbandingan yang teratur, yaitu 4:3:2, dan semuanya habis dibagi 8.

Ukuran tinggi stupa di tiga tingkat tersebut adalah 1,9m; 1,8m; masing-masing bebeda 10 cm. Begitu juga diameter dari stupa-stupa tersebut, mempunyai ukuran tepat sama pula dengan tingginya 1,9m; 1,8m; 1,7m.

Beberapa bilangan di Borobudur, bila dijumlahkan angka-angkanya akan berakhir menjadi angka 1 kembali. Diduga bahwa itu memang dibuat demikian yang dapat ditafsirkan : Angka 1 melambangkan ke-esaan sang adhi buddha.

Jumlah tingkatan borobudur adalah 10, angka-angka dalam 10 bila dijumlahkan hasilnya : 1 + 0 = 1. Jumlah stupa di arupadhatu yang didalamnya ada patung-patungnya ada : 32 + 24 + 16 + 1 = 73, angka 73 bila dijumlahkan hasilnya: 10 dan seperti diatas 1 + 0 = 10.

Jumlah patung-patung di borobudur seluruhnya ada 505 buah. Bila angka-angka didalamnya dijumlahkan, hasilnya 5 + 0 + 5 = 10 dan juga seperti diatas 1 + 0 = 1.

Melihat data-data di atas, tentunya masih bersifat perkiraan, lalu mari kita coba memberikan beberapa analisa yang mudah-mudahan dapat dikomentari sebagai usaha kita menguak misteri yang ada sebagai berikut :

1. Dari data yang ada disebutkan bahwa ukuran batu candi adalah sekitar 25 x 10 x 15 cm dengan berat jenis batu adalah 1,6 – 2 ton/m3, ini berarti berat per potongan batu hanya sekitar maksimum 7.5 kg (untuk berat jenis 2 t/m3).

Potongan batu ternyata sangat ringan. Untuk batuan seberat itu, rasanya tidak perlu teknologi apapun. Masalah yang mungkin muncul adalah medan miring yang harus ditempuh.

Medan miring secara fisika membuat beban seolah-olah menjadi lebih berat. Hal ini karena penguraian gaya menyebabkan ada beban horizontal sejajar kemiringan yang harus dipikul.

Namun dengan melihat kenyataan bahwa berat per potongan batu adalah hanya 7.5 kg, rasanya masalah medan miring yang beundak-undak tidak perlu dipermasalahkan. Kesimpulannya adalah proses pengangkutan potongan batu dapat dilakukan dengan mudah dan tidak perlu teknologi apapun.

2. Sumber material batu diambil dari sungai sekitar candi. Hal ini berarti jarak antara quarry dan site sangat dekat. Walaupun jumlahnya mencapai 2.000.000 potongan, namun ringannya material tiap potong batu dan dekatnya jarak angkut, hal ini berarti proses pengangkutan pun dapat dilakukan dengan mudah tanpa perlu teknologi tertentu.

3. Candi dibangun dalam jangka waktu yang cukup lama. Ada yang mengatakan 23 tahun ada juga yang mengatakan 92 tahun. Jika berasumsi paling cepat 23 tahun. Mari kita berhitung soal produktifitas pemasangan batu.

Jika persiapan lahan dan material awal adalah 2 tahun, maka masa pemasangan batu adalah 21 tahun atau 7665 hari. Terdapat 2 juta potong batu. Produktifitas pemasangan batu adalah 2.000.000 / 7.665 = 261 batu/hari.

Produktifitas ini rasanya sangat kecil. Tidak perlu cara apapun untuk menghasilkan produktifitas yang kecil tersebut. Apalagi menggunakan data durasi pelaksanaan yang lebih lama.

4. Lamanya proses pembuatan candi dapat disebabkan ada perubahan-perubahan design yang dilakukan selama pelaksanaannya. Hal ini mungkin dikeranakan adanya pergantian penguasa (raja) selama proses pembangunan candi.

5. Borobudur dilihat secara fisik begitu impresif. Memiliki 10 lantai dengan bentuk persegi dan lingkaran. Memiliki relief sepanjang dinding dan arca dalam jumlah yang banyak. Candi ini begitu memperhatikan falsafah yang terkandung dalam ukuran-ukurannya. Hal ini membuktikan bahwa candi dibangun dengan konsep design yang cukup baik.

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